Born: January 15, 1940
Parents: Diplomat Francis Henry and Ruth Russell
Education: B.A. from Swarthmore College in 1962, M.A. in 1965 from University of California and Ph. D. in 1969 from the University of California
Influenced by: Erving Goffman, David Riesman, C. Wright Mills.
Arlie Hochschild grew up in a very gendered home, with her father being the breadwinner and her mother the caretaker. Hochschild drew on her experiences as a child and her family dynamic when completing her own research and writing. The main topics amongst most of Hochschild’s works are family, market culture, global patterns of care work, and social psychology; particularly the relationship between culture and emotion. A clear example as to how Hochschild used her personal experience in her writing is seen in her book, The Commercialization of Intimate Life, where she writes about her mother who was an individual which devoted her life to caring for the family, yet never seemed happy to be doing so.
Hochschild considers Goffman, Riesman, and Mills to be the most influential theorists, when guiding her down the path of sociology. Just as Goffman explores the outward manifestations of emotions such as shame and embarrassment, Hochschild interprets the self’s inner emotional life. She considers Simone de Beauvoir’s and Betty Friedan’s texts “The Second Sex” and “The Feminist Mystique” as essential factors in influencing her feminist mode of thinking. When Hochschild attended Berkeley there weren’t many studies focused on women, she was driven to reshape sociology so that it would not be entirely based on the lifestyles of men. She has opened the door for the studying of economic advantages and disadvantages of women in the workplace.
Hochschild is a member of the American Sociological Association, the Sociologists for Women inSociety, the American Gerontological Society, the American Federation of Teachers, Sociological Research Association, and the International Association for Research on Emotion. Hochschild is currently both a writer and a teacher. Her most recent work is The Outsourced Self: Intimate Life in Market Times and is currently a sociology professor in Berkeley University. She is also a strong activist for a mother’s to be able to equally balance her job in the workplace as well as her job as a caring mother and homemaker.
■2012 : The Outsourced Self: Intimate Life in Market Time
■2003 : The Commercialization of Intimate Life: Notes From Home And Work.
■2002 : Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy
■1997 : The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work
■1989 : Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home
■1983 : The Managed Heart: The Commercialization of Human Feeling
■1973 : The Unexpected Community
■Along with many other articles
The Second Shift: refers to the “double work” that women often take on in addition to their day jobs (which can be largely professional). The second shift includes housework, childcare, domestic responsibilities and more. Hochschild says that even though women are now working and often have the same jobs as men, their domestic role at home hasn’t changed much, and this is what she refers to as the stalled gender revolution. When Hochschild was conducting her research for “The Second Shift” book she found that women who have demanding careers come home and continue doing “work”. Women do about seventy five percent of the housework in their households and eight percent of the child care tasks within their families.
Time Bind: is a concept introduced through Hochschild’s publication of The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work (1997). Throughout Hochschild’s research she noticed that although a majority of working parents claimed that their family was their primary focus, very few of them considered adjusting their long hours, even when their workplaces offered paternity leave, flextime, telework, along with other policies. This was most noticeable amongst women who often rather work long hours than go home early to tend to their family; the workplace has become a refuge from a demanding family life. In conclusion Hochschild’s research has shown that the roles of the household and workplace had reversed. The “home” has become a place of stress, with a lack of recognition and full of emotional stresses. On the contrary work now offers parents a sense of belonging.
Normative Theory about Emotion: predicts that the differences amongst male and female with pertinence to feelings and expressive behavior are consistent with gender specific emotion beliefs. Hochschild argues that cultural beliefs about emotion are direct influences upon individual’s expressions and feelings. She also argues the opposite, where expression and feelings norms specify the particular emotions individuals should show in set situations. According to Hochschild expression and feeling rules, set standards for individuals to judge their own emotions as well as the emotions of others. Our emotion culture has specific feelings and expressions which are particularly assigned to women and not men. Women report that they experience emotions more often than not. Hochschild states that there are norms that discourage women from expressing and feeling anger. As well as men who are discouraged from expressing and feeling sadness. As a result women experience sadness more often and men experience anger more often.
Criticism of Normative Theory of Emotion
In contrast to Hochschild’s normative theory of emotion, Kemper holds a structural theory of emotion. Contrary to Hochschild’s viewpoint Kemper believes there is a pattern of subjective feelings for men and women that depart from cultural beliefs about emotion and gender. An individual’s emotional response to social situations is due to structural factors as opposed to cultural derived emotion norms. An example of these structural factors is an individual’s social position. Kemper argues that power and status are essential characteristics of social relationships which provoke specific emotions when power and status are changed or maintained. Kemper claims that when people hold greater amounts of power and status they experience positive emotions like happiness. On the contrary when people hold less amounts of power and a lower status they experience negative emotions like anger and sadness. In essence he believes that since women often have a lower status and less power than men they experience negative emotions more often than men do.
“Arlie R. Hochschild” Sociology, University of Berkeley, n.p., Web. 21 Nov., 2012. http://sociology.berkeley.edu/professor-emeritus/arlie-r-hochschild
Brines, Julie. “The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home by Arlie Hochschild; Anne Machung Review” Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 52, No. 1. National Council on Family Relation, Feb., 1990. pp. 278-279. Web. 21 Nov., 2012http://www.jstor.org.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu/stable/352858
Ehrlich, Robert. “The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling by Arlie Hochschild Review” Theory and Society, Vol. 13, No. 5. Springer, Sep. 1984. pp. 731-736. Web 21 Nov., 2012. http://www.jstor.org.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu/stable/657250
Manning, C. “WMST 227: Arlie Hochschild” 16 April, 2007. Web 25, Nov. 2012
McDermott, Monica. “The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work by Arlie Russell Hochschild Review” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 113, No. 1.The Academy of Political Science, 1998. pp. 169-170. Web. 24 Nov. 2012. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657684
Nath, Leda E. and Simon, Robin “Gender and Emotion in the United States: Do Men and Women Differ in Self Reports of Feelings and Expressive Behavior?” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 109, No. 5. The University of Chicago, March 2004. pp. 1137- 76. Web. 23 Nov., 2012.